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Savings from Economic Incentives


Section 1: INTRODUCTION

Anderson, Robert, Alan Carlin, Albert McGartland and Jennifer Weinberger. 1992. "Cost Savings from the Use of Market Incentives for Pollution Control," in Market-Based Approaches to Environmental Policy, Kozobud and Zimmerman (eds), Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Anderson, Robert, and Andrew Lohof. 1997. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives in Environmental Pollution Control Policy. Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC.

Carlin, Alan. 1992. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Environmental Pollution Control. Report EPA-R-92-001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. March 1991. Economic Incentives: Options for Environmental Protection. Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation. Washington, D.C.

Sections 2.1-2.4 ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITIES

Anderson, Robert C., Lisa A. Hofmann, and Michael Rusin. June 1990. The Use of Economic Incentive Mechanisms in Environmental Management. Research Paper #051. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

Anderson, Robert C., and Andrew Q. Lohof, 1997. "The United States Experience with Economic Incentives in Environmental Pollution Control Policy." prepared for the U.S. EPA.

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Atkinson, Scott E., and Donald H. Lewis. 1974. "A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Alternative Air Quality Control Strategies." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 1:237-50.

Atkinson, Scott E., and Donald H. Lewis. 1976. "Determination and Implementation of Optimal Air Quality Standards," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 3:363-80.

Atkinson, Scott E., and Thomas H. Tietenberg. 1982. "The Empirical Properties of Two Classes of Designs for Transferable Discharge Permit Markets." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 9:101-21.

Atkinson, Scott, and Tom Tietenberg. 1991. "Market Failure in Incentive-Based Regulation: The Case of Emissions Trading." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 21: 17-32.

Barthold, Thomas, 1994. "Issues in the Design of Environmental Excise Taxes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol.8, no1.

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BNA Daily Environment Report, December 11, 1995, p. A-3.

Carlin, Alan. 1992. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Environmental Pollution Control. Report EPA-R-92-001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Candace Carraway, Air Quality Management Division, Environmental Protection Agency, personal communication, June-July 1996.

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Hahn, Robert. 1989. "Economic Prescriptions for Environmental Problems: How the Patient Followed the Doctor's Orders." Economic Perspectives. 3(2):95-114.

Hahn, Robert and Gordon Hester. 1989. "Where Did All the Markets Go? An Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program." Yale Journal on Regulation. 6(1):109-53.

Harrison, David, Jr. 1983. "Case Study 1: The Regulation of Aircraft Noise." In Thomas C. Schelling, ed., Incentives for Environmental Protection. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.

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Johnson, Edwin L. 1967. "A Study in the Economics of Water Quality Management." Water Resources Research. Vol. 3.

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Kohn, Robert E. 1978. A Linear Programming Model for Air Pollution Control. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

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Limouze, Richard. 1996. Maine Air Quality Bureau, personal communication.

Liroff, Richard. 1986. Reforming Air Pollution Regulation: The Toil and Trouble of EPA's Bubble. The Conservation Foundation, Washington, D.C.

Maloney, Michael T., and Bruce Yandle. 1984. "Estimation of the Cost of Air Pollution Control Regulation." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.

McGartland, Albert M. 1984. "Marketable Permit Systems for Air Pollution Control: An Empirical Study." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Maryland.

Milliman, S., and R. Prince. 1989. "Firm Incentives to Promote Technological Change in Pollution Control." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 17:247-65.

Miranda, Marie Lynn, Scott D. Bauer, and Joseph E. Aldy. August 1995. "Unit Pricing Programs for Residential Municipal Solid Waste: An Assessment of the Literature." Report prepared for Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. http://yosemite.epa.gov/EE/epa/eerm.nsf/vwSER/9F66384145F6801D8525643C007E4080?OpenDocument

Miranda, Marie Lynn and Joseph E. Aldy. March 1996. "Unit Pricing of Residential Municipal Solid Waste: Lessons from Nine Case Study Communities." Report prepared for Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
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Morandi, Larry, Deb Starkey, and Addie Romero. March 1995. "Alternative Funding Mechanisms for State Drinking Water Programs, 1994-1995." National Conference of State Legislatures.

Morgenstern, Richard, William Pizer and Jhih-Shyang Shih, 1997. "Are We Overstating the Real Economic Costs of Environmental Protection?" Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 97-36-REV.

Nichols, Albert L. 1983. "The Regulation of Airborne Benzene." In Thomas C. Schelling, ed., Incentives for Environmental Protection. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA.

Novello, Daniel, and Robert Martineau Jr., 1993. "Better Earlier Than Later: EPA's Air Toxics 'Early Reductions' Program," Environment Reporter, July 2, 401.

Oates, Wallace E., Paul R. Portney, and Albert M. McGartland. 1989. "The Net Benefits of Incentive-Based Regulation: A Case Study of Environmental Standard Setting." American Economic Review, 75:1223-1242.

O'Neil, William B. 1980. "Pollution Permits and Markets for Water Quality." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

O'Neil, William B., 1983. "Transferrable Discharge Permits Trading Under Varying Stream Conditions: A Simulation of Multiperiod Permit Market Performance on the Fox River, Wisconsin." Water Resources Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, 608-612.

O'Ryan, Raul. 1996. "Cost-Effective Policies to Improve Urban Air Quality in Santiago Chile," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Vol 31, 302-13.

Opaluch, James J., and Richard M. Kashmanian. 1985. "Assessing the Viability of Market- able Permit Systems: An Application in Hazardous Waste Management." Land Economics, 61:263-271.

Orr, Larry. 1976. "Incentives for Innovation as the Basis of Effluent Charge Strategy" American Economic Review. 56:441-47.

Palmer, Adele R., William E. Mooz, Timothy H. Quinn, and Kathleen Wolf. June 1980. Economic Implications of Regulating Chlorofluorocarbon Emissions form Nonaerosol Applications. Report R-2524-EPA. The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.

Palmer, Adele R., and Timothy H. Quinn. July 1981. Allocating Chlorofluorocarbon Permits: Who Gains, Who Loses, and What Is the Cost? Report R-2806-EPA. The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, CA.

Perchalski, F. R., and J. M. Higgins. February 1988. "Pinpointing Nonpoint Pollution" Civil Engineering. 58:62-64.

Porter, Richard C. 1978. "A Social Benefit-Cost Analysis of Mandatory Deposits on Beverage Containers." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 5:351-75.

Portney, Paul. Fall 1990. Economics and the Clean Air Act," Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 173-181.

Putnam, Hayes & Bartlett, Inc., 1981. "Evaluation of the Potential Cost Impact of Plantwide Effluent Limitations (The Water Bubble Concept)," prepared for the Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. EPA.

Raffle, Bradley, and Debra Mitchell. 1993. "Effective Environmental Strategies: Opportunities for Innovation and Flexibility under Federal Environmental Law," Chicago: Amoco.

Reese, Andrew J. January/February 1996. "Storm-Water Utility User Fee Credits." Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. Vol. 122. No. 1. pp. 49-56.

Rendleman, C. Matthew, Kenneth A. Reinert and James A. Tobey. 1995. "Market-based Systems for Reducing Chemical Use in Agriculture in the United States," Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 5, 55-70.

Repetto, Robert, Roger C. Dower, Robin Jenkins, and Jacqueline Geoghegan. November 1992. Green Fees: How a Tax Shift Can Work for the Environment and the Economy. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.

Roach, Fred, Charles Kolstad, Allen V. Kneese, Richard Tobin, and Michael Williams. 1981. "Alternative Air Quality Policy Options in the Four Corners Region." Southwest Review, 1(2):44-45.

Rubin, Jonathan, and Catherine Kling, 1993. "An Emission Saved is an Emission Earned: As Empirical Study of Emission Banking for Light-Duty Vehicle Manufacturers," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, November, 257-274.

Selmi, Daniel P. 1994. "Transforming Economic Incentives from Theory to Reality: The Marketable Permit Program of the South Coast Air Quality Management District," Environmental Law Reporter, December. 10695-10711.

Seskin, Eugene P., Robert J. Anderson, Jr., and R. O. Reid. 1983. "An Empirical Analysis of Economic Strategies for Controlling Air Pollution." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 10:112-24.

Shapiro, Michael, and Ellen Warhit. 1983. "Marketable Permits: The Case of Chlorofluoro- carbons." Natural Resources Journal. 23:577-591.

Sigman, Hilary. March 1996. "The Effects of Hazardous Waste Taxes on Waste Generation and Disposal." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. Vol. 30, No 2.

Sims, William A. 1977. Economics of Sewer Effluent Charges. PhD. Thesis, Political Economy University of Toronto.

Skumatz, Lisa. 1994. "Pay as You Throw: Variable Rate Incentives in Solid Waste Management." New Partnerships: Economic Incentives for Environmental Management. Air and Waste Management Association.

Skumatz, Lisa A. November 1995. "Continued Growth for Variable Rates, BioCycle.

Skumatz, Lisa A. Skumatz Economic Research Associates. March 21, 1996. Unpublished memorandum to whom it may concern.

Smith, Bucklin and Associates, Inc. 1995. 1994 National Recycling Rate Study. Prepared for Battery Council International.

South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD). January 1992. "Marketable Permits Program." Working Paper #5: Air Quality Assessment and Socio-Economic Inputs.

South Coast Air Quality Management District. Spring 1992. Regional Clean Air Incentives Market. Diamond Bar, California.

Spofford, Walter O., Jr. February 1984. "Efficiency Properties of Alternative Source Control Policies for Meeting Ambient Air Quality Standards: An Empirical Application to the Lower Delaware Valley." Unpublished, Resources for the Future discussion paper D-118.

Stavins, Robert. 1995. "Transactions Costs and Pollution Control." Resources for the Future. Resources, Spring.

Temple, Barker & Sloane, 1981. "The Effect of the Water Bubble Policy on Individual Iron and Steel Facilities," prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Tietenberg, T. H. 1985. Emissions Trading: An Exercise in Reforming Pollution Policy. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.

Tietenberg, T. H. 1990. "Economic Instruments for Environmental Protection." Oxford Review of Economic Policy. 6:17-33.

U.S. Department of Commerce. "Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures," published periodically in the Survey of Current Business.

U.S. General Accounting Office. 1996. Water Pollution: Differences Among the States in Issuing Permits Limiting the Discharge of Pollutants. GAO/RCED-96-42.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. April 2, 1985. "Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives; Banking of Lead Rights." 50 FR 13116-28.

U.S. EPA. December 4, 1986. "Emissions Trading Policy Statement; General Policies for Creation, Banking, and Use of Emission Reduction Credits; Final Policy Statement and Accompanying Technical Issues Document." 51 FR 43814-60.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. CFC Regulatory Impact Analysis, Vol 2.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. March 1991. Economic Incentives: Options for Environmental Protection.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. "Clean Fuel Vehicle Technology: Proposed Rules." 56 FR 48618, September 25.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. "Temporary Final Rule for the Phaseout of Chlorofluorocarbons." 56 FR 49548-580, September 30; and 56 FR 67368 December 30.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1991. "Proposed Open Market Trading Rule." 60 FR 39668.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1992. "Temporary Final Rule: Early Reduction of Hazardous Air Pollutants." 57 FR 61970 (December 29, 1992)

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Section 3: PROJECTED COST SAVINGS FROM COMPREHENSIVE USE OF ECONOMIC INCENTIVES TO CONTROL ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

Anderson, Robert C., Lisa A. Hofmann, and Michael Rusin. June 1990. The Use of Economic Incentive Mechanisms in Environmental Management. Research Paper #051. American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C.

Atkeson, Erika. 1997. "Joint Implementation: Lessons From Title IV's Voluntary Compliance Programs," Working Paper 97-003. MIT Center for Energy and Enviornmental Policy Research.

Baram, Michael S., Patricia S. Dillon, and Betsy Ruffle. 1990. Managing Chemical Risks: Corporate Response to SARA Title III. The Center for Environmental Management, Tufts University.

Burtraw, Dallas, Alan Krupnik, Erin Mansur, David Austin and Dierdre Farrell. 1998. Costs and Benefits of Reducing Air POllutants Related to Acid Rain." Contemporary Economic Policy, XVI, 379-400.

Burtraw, Dallas. 1995. Cost Savings Sans Allowance Trades? Evaluating the SO2 Emission Trading Program to Date, Washington D.C.: Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 95-30.

Carlin, Alan. 1992. The United States Experience with Economic Incentives for Environ- mental Pollution Control. Report EPA-R-92-001, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.

Carlson, Curtis, Dallas Burtraw, Maureen Cropper and Karen Palmer 1998. "Sulfur Dioxide Control by Electric Utilities: What are the Gains from Trade?" Environment and Infrastructure, Development Research Group, The World Bank, Washington D.C.

Cason, Timothy. 1995. "An Experimental Investigation of Seller Incentives in EPA's Emission Trading Auction." American Economic Review. 85, 905-22.

Ellerman, A Denny, Richard Schmalansee, Paul Joskow, Juan Pablo Montero and Elizabeth Bailey. 1997. "Emissions Trading Under the USA Acid Rain Program. MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

Freeman, A. Myrick, III. 1982. Air and Water Pollution Control: A Benefit-Cost Assessment, New York, Wiley.

Freeman, A. Myrick, III. 1990. "Water Pollution Policy." In Paul Portney, ed., Public Policies for Environmental Protection. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.

Hahn, Robert W., and Gordon L. Hester. 1989. "Where Did All the Markets Go? An Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program." Yale Journal on Regulation. 6(1):109-53.

Hausker, Karl. 1992. "The Politics and Economics of Auction Design int he Market for Sulfur Dioxide Pollution," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 11, 553-72.

Hazilla, M., and R. Kopp. March 1989. The Social Cost of Environmental Quality Regulations: A General Equilibrium Analysis. Discussion Paper QE89-11, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC, .

ICF Resources International. 1989. Economic, Environmental, and Coal Market Impacts of SO2 Emissions Trading under Alternative Acid Rain Control Proposals. Report prepared for the Regulatory Innovations Staff, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, U.S. EPA.

Joskow, Paul L. Richard Schmalensee, and Elizabeth Baliey. 1998. "The Market for Sulfur Dioxide Emissions." American Economic Review, 88, 669-85.

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, 1987.

Oates, Wallace E., Paul R. Portney, and Albert M. McGartland. 1989. " The Net Benefits of Incentive-based Regulation: A Case Study of Environmental Standard Setting," American Economic Review, 79: 1233-42.

Porter, Richard C. 1978. "A Social Benefit-Cost Analysis of Mandatory Deposits on Beverage Containers." Journal of Environmental Economics and Management. 5:351-75.

Sigman, Hilary. January 1993. "The Effects of Hazardous Waste Taxes on the Generation and Disposal of Chlorinated Solvent Wastes." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Allied Social Sciences Association, Anaheim, CA.

Sims, William A. 1977. Economics of Sewer Effluent Charges. Ph.D. Thesis, Political Economy, University of Toronto.

South Coast Air Quality Management District. 1992. Regional Clean Air Incentives Market. Diamond Bar, California.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. November 1990. Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean Environment, Report of the Administrator of the Environmental Protec-tion Agency to the Congress of the United States. Report No. EPA-230-11-90-083. Washington, D.C. A summary is available as: Alan Carlin with the assistance of the Environmental Law Institute. December 1990. Environmental Investments: The Cost of a Clean Environment, A Summary. U.S. EPA Report No. EPA-230-12-90-084. Washington, D.C. Both reports were republished in 1991 as a combined report by Island Press, Washington, D.C., and Covelo, CA. A summary of the summary report has been published as: Alan Carlin, Paul F. Scodari, and Don H. Garner. March 1992. "Environmental Investments: The Cost of Cleaning Up" Environment. 34(2):12-44.

U.S. EPA. 1995. Toxics in the Community.

U.S. EPA. May 1992. The Benefits and Feasibility of Effluent Trading Between Point Sources: An Analysis in Support of Clean Water Act Reauthorization.

U.S. General Accounting Office. June 1992. Water Pollution: Pollutant Trading Could Reduce Compliance Costs If Uncertainties Are Resolved.

Section 4. Projected Future Savings

Congressional Budget Office. 1982. "The Clean Air Act, the Electric Utilities, and the Coal Market," Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.

Council of Economic Advisors, 1998. The Kyoto Protocol and the President's Policies to Address Climate Change.

Freeman, A. Myrick, III. 1990. "Water Pollution Policy." In Paul Portney, ed., Public Policies for Environmental Protection. Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C.

Freeman, A. Myrick, III. 1982. Air and Water Pollution Control: A Benefit-Cost Assessment, New York, Wiley.

Lile, Ronald, Mark Powell, and Michael Toman. 1998. “Implementing the Clean Development Mechanism: Lessons from U.S. Private-Sector Participation in Activities Implemented Jointly.” Washington D.C., Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 99-08.

Repetto, Robert, Roger C. Dower, Robin Jenkins, and Jacqueline Geoghegan. November 1992. Green Fees: How a Tax Shift Can Work for the Environment and the Economy. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.

U.S. General Accounting Office. June 1992. Water Pollution: Pollutant Trading Could Reduce Compliance Costs If Uncertainties Are Resolved.

U.S. Office of Technology Assessment. 1989. Catching our Breath: Next Steps for Reduing Urban Ozone. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

White, Lawrence J. 1982. Regulation of Air Pollutant Emissions from Motor Vehicles, Washington, D.C., American Enterprise Institute.

Wirth, Senator Timothy, and Senator John Heinz. May 1991. Project 88 Round II: Incentives for Action: Designing Market-Based Environmental Strategies. Washington, D.C.


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